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# Open Traverse closing method

Posted by amksyr on January 7, 2020 at 11:23 amDear Senior Surveyors

I want to ask about open Traverse that what method should I adopt for closing open Traverse

1) Bowditch (compass) rule or

2) Angular method

My confusion is when I adopt Bowditch rule traverse close on last point and I get exactly same coordinatea of last point

But if when I adopt angular method I got different coordinates of last points

When to use Bowditch rule and when to use Angular method.

Please guide me if you understand my question or if you need any clarification let me know thanks.

My Introduction

my name is Muhammad Aamir I am from Pakistan my Native language is Urdu So if you found grammar mistake please forgive me thanks.

Norman_Oklahoma replied 6 months, 1 week ago 27 Members · 73 Replies- 73 Replies

Here is an excerpt from one of my surveying books I have in my library and the formula for the calculations of the Convergency of Meridians from an old K&E Ephemeris. The only check on an open traverse is angular, essentually by taking astronomic observations at each end and checking the angular error and comparing to the calculated convergence bearing/azimuth at the end.

Assuming it is an open traverse (as opposed to a linked traverse), you are missing ‘knowns’ at the end of the traverse with which to close anything. Therefore you would not be able to adjust the angles because you would not have a known azimuth your should be matching at the end.

The method you need to adopt would be to either establish known and related beginning and end points making the open traverse a linked traverse or make additional measurements to wrap the traverse around and make it a closed figure.

At the risk of exposing my own ignorance, the “angular method” adjustments I am familiar with only were designed to distribute the gross angular misclosure among the traverse stations, the assumption being that the angular misclosure was the result of systematic error in the equipment that could not be eliminated other than by adjustment once the gross angular misclosure is quantified. This error can be minimized by taken multiple reading in both face 1 and face 2 orientations of the total station.

The Bowditch or Compass Rule adjustment divides the linear misclosure proportionally among all the traverse stations, so that each leg of the traverse gets the proportional amount of its length as a percentage of the overall traverse length.

Either adjustment method presumes that there are no blunders, and that you are distributing the misclosure through the traverse. Some would first do an angular adjustment to balance the angular misclosure though all the traverse stations, as quantified by a reoccupation of the initial survey station, with a backsight taken on the last station and the angle turned to the second traverse station. If the raw error of closure before any adjustment is small, my experience is that an angular adjustment before doing the Compass Rule adjustment will result in a slightly poorer linear misclosure than prior to adjustment.

The experts on this site would encourage you to take multiple measurements to each forward station and to use least squares to do your traverse analysis and adjustment.

I’m not sure if the traverse runs from one pair of known control points through several new traverse points to another pair of known control points.

-OR-

If it is a closed loop starting on a pair of traverse points and ending on the same pair and the term ‘open’ is being used to mean ‘unadjusted.’

At any rate, balancing the angles then recalculating the traverse will not result in a closed, adjusted set of coordinates.

You can do a Bowditch Adjustment with the angles unbalanced or balance the angles then do a Bowditch Adjustment (common procedure back in the old days).

Sir it’s a open Traverse which starts on the known point and end on unknown point after 4 kilometer in length from starting known point. It’s parallel to the road.

If there is no check measurements or redundancy, there is nothing to adjust. A sketch or list showing which angles and distances were measured and what was taken as given (such as starting coordinates) is needed for us to see your situation and determine if an adjustment can be done.

.There is no adjustment possible. You have nothing to adjust to. Your measured values to the final point of unknown anything now make it known by your measurements.

Ok Sir currently I am login on mobile I will attach sketch and data tomorrow thanks

Author Barry F Kavanagh? I got the 6th edition (2003) 😉

Barry F. Kavanagh & S.J. Glenn Bird, 1984. Probably First Edition, as it doesn’t say.

So you have a point and a point and you traversed between? Think it through for a moment. If you had a bearing and a bearing, you could adjust the angles then apply the bowditch. The best you can do is essentially scale from point to point. What is the misclosure? Where did you get your points from? What is your altitude and do you have to worry about scale factor? The flat angles along a road add another concern due to lack of strength of geometry.

**Posted by: @spledeus**The flat angles along a road add another concern due to lack of strength of geometry.

While there are certainly concerns here about the lack of checking, strength of geometric figure is not among them here.

When you are measuring angle and distance with comparable accuracy there is no such thing as a poor angle. Poor angles are those used without distances to form an intersection of lines that are too close to parallel, what I call the scissors effect.

.Thank you very much all the senior members thanks for helping me I got lot of information from your replies and what I figure out is that

I cannot close this traverse because the end point is unknown the only way to check the error is if I have a known point at the end.

in my Traverse i didnot have any refference to close it or Re check it.

Also i get information from this survey computations – UNSW Engineering PDF file from the internet which is explaning about the open traverse I have study this book and now I have two questions in my mind that

case 1)

if I have two known points at the beginning of open Traverse and two known points at the end of open traverse then how I close the traverse or which method should I use.

Page 119 ~ Page 127

case 2)if I have two known points at the beginning of the open traverse and one known point at end of the open traverse.

note : I am asking this for learning purpose I didn??t have any known point at my project except at beginning I am using Leica Ts 12 Total Station.

thanks again for taking time to answer my problem from your precious Time.

Thank you very much Sir for helping me what I figure out Now is that

I cannot close this traverse because the end point is unknown the only way to check the error is if I have a known point at the end.

in my Traverse i didnot have any refference to close it or Re check it.

Thank you very much Sir for helping me what I figure out Now is that

I cannot close this traverse because the end point is unknown the only way to check the error is if I have a known point at the end.

in my Traverse i didnot have any refference to close it or Re check it.

**Posted by: @amksyr**if I run traverse back to where I started and I get different coordinates of starting point then which method I use to eliminate the error.

Then you can see the error of closure. If error is small you probably do not have a blunder.

Then you can adjust the closed traverse using any standard method, such as adjusting angles and Bowditch compass rule.

.You can use a compass to check that you have not made any major angular errors in your open traverse.

Assign a compass bearing or azimuth to your initial pair of traverse points. Take another compass reading between your final two traverse points and compare this to the bearing calculated by your total stations. Depending on your skill with a compass and its precision, your calculated bearing for the final pair of traverse points should be similar to the directly observed bearing.

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